Countries

Armenia

Brief summary about sericulture in Armenia: The silk branch of Armenia has deep historical routes. According to knowledgeable histori ti ans, silk extraction spread into Trans-Caucasia, particularly Armenia, in the 5th-6th centuries A.D., mainly from Central Asia. In ancient times, whole royal clans immigrated into Armenia from central China bringing with them workers and soldiers. This communication left deep impressions on the skill, experience and culture of silk production in Armenia. In this way, silk processing and embossing of silk has existed in Armenia for more than 1400-1500 years. In this period, when trade acquired a more important role and when its widening started to increase the role of money, silk played the role of a common equivalent, the role of currency. Taxes were paid in silk. Arab historians of that time have given a number of indicators of the wide proliferation of silk processing, silk embossing and about the trade in ancient and medieval Armenia.

Certain periods of the history of Armenians saw the decline of silk extraction and processing, and then, its rebirth; it occupied an important position in the Armenian economy. The Armenian silk thread, obtained by homemade handlooms, was famous for its excellent quality. Hand silk reeling was practiced by Armenians even in ancient times, and from local, high quality silk thread - raw silk - skilful, expensive silk cloth was produced. Along with handlooms, primitive processing of raw silk, silk-reeling and silk spinning, silk textile as well as silk dyeing also developed.

The quality of Armenian silk was praised by historians because Armenian cocoons were of high quality and hand reeling produced the finest high quality thread. Armenian silk also stood out because of its colors. Back then, in the cities of Dvin and Artashat in Armenia, a special expensive dye, cochineal ( Porphyrophora hamelii/Homoptera, Coccidae) , was produced and named "kirmiz". It was used to dye wool and silk and these textiles were exported to Europe under the name "kirmiz".

Since ancient times Armenians have known the art of printing cloth, especially silk. The art of printing stood out clearly with the appearance of national costume. Painting cloth by printing them on wooden frames was widespread in Armenia. There were other ways to print cloth as well, for example, the cloth was covered in molten wax, and then printed upon.

The printer-ornamentalists of Armenia were always original and didn't repeat their work. Around 4000 images from the Armenian art of dyeing are kept in the Matenadaran, none of which are repeated.

Cocoon-reeling started to be mechanized and automated, increasing its producing power. Low quality cocoons and waste were re-processed and the raw silk obtained was used for the production of cloth meant for wide consumption. The technology of the silk industry allowed for considerable widening of the assortment of goods and the increased production of crape cloth from natural silk, printed silk, cloth with nap (plush, velvet, staple items and so on). There was a collection of examples of cloth (more than 600) items, which was released by the enterprises of the Armenian silk industry in hundreds of colors and with motifs of the national Armenian ornaments. The silk-producing industries of Armenia did not always rely on the processing of local raw material, produced in the country. Raw material used to be brought in from other countries.

The production of the silkworm cocoon began to fall in Armenia in 1970. Since then, only research institutions have continued the genetic selection work on silkworms.

In 1990 after the falling of the Soviet Union, the Armenian government began to restore Sericulture in Armenia. They established an 800 hectare mulberry plantation so cocoon production could begin. The Faculty of Sericulture then opened in the Armenia Agriculture University.

However, after privatization of the lands and the formation of the farming facilities the sericulture practices turned out to fully depend on the farmers desires, which was a problem because of the unassisted programs of the Government. Armenia's low economic level has not allowed them to possibly help the farmers with reconstruction and revival of sericulture.

The dryness of the climate, absence of frost in the spring and of sharp fluctuations in temperature during the feeding period are factors suitable to the growth of worms, which, in Armenia occurs at a faster pace, than in other sericultural regions. Such climate creates condition for reduction of the diseases of the silkworm and mulberry. In this connection is expedient to restore the production of cocoons in Armenia

Since 1995-2005, cocoon production was organized in some farming facilities in small amounts, but this did not prosper. Their production of these cocoons cannot be produced in large amounts without the help of the Sericulture organization. Because of this, YANS-SHERAM (Silkworm) LTD., ECO-SILK, and Environment and Health Protection Non-Governmental Organizations, have begun to promote rehabilitation and revival of Sericulture in Armenia. Before these organizations were created, the study of the potential of sericulture was done by Armenia (Fund Eurasia). We engineered the Electric Device for rooting the mulberry cuttings and production of saplings. We also organized actions on the land bordering the mulberry plantations.

For sericulture rehabilitation in Armenia it is necessary to organize: mulberry planting, silkworm breeding and silkworm egg production system; cocoons and raw silk realization.

Local institutions in sericulture:

 

Name of Organization:

ECO-SILK, Environment and Health Protection Non-Governmental Organization, Armenia, Yerevan
Contact Person :
Armen Azizyan –President , Dr. Anzhela Azizyan - Vice - President
Postal Address :
Mchitar Heratsi Str. 89, ap.6, Yerevan 375025, Armenia
WEB Address :
 
E-mail :
Tel/Fax :
/374-1/ 55 65 62, /374-1/ 54-52-12
Mission statement :
The main goals of the organization are:
-Maintain safe environment and human health.
-Rehabilitate one of the most traditional branches of agriculture in Armenia - the sericulture to produce ecologically pure silk. Promote host plant of the silkworm - a mulberry planting as forest trees culture.
To achieve these goals the following measures are realized: The information dissemination among the population is performed via mass-media (radio, TV, press) and lectures and seminars, teaching of farmers, students, and pupils. The NGO collaborates with other ecological NGOs, ecological governmental and scientific institutions both in Armenia and other countries

 


Name of Organization:
Yans Sheram (Silkworm) LTD, Armenia, Yerevan
Contact Person :
President: Dr. Anzhela Azizyan
Postal Address :
Zavaryan Str. 10, Yerevan 375018, Armenia
WEB Address :
 
E-mail :
Tel/Fax :
/374-1/ 55 65 62, /374-1/ 54-52-12
Mission statement :
Study the possibilities of the development sericulture in Armenia . Collect the varieties of mulberry, grown in Armenia. Providing high-yielding and healthy silkworm eggs localized (well-suited) to various regions of Armenia .
Providing high-yielding varieties mulberry saplings, recommended for cocoon production . Providing t echnology for accelerated cultivation of mulberry trees and creation of plantations.

Name of Organization:
Institute of Zoology of National Academy of Sciences of RA, Lab of Genetics and Entomology, Armenia, Yerevan
Contact Person :
Dr Anzhela Azizyan Head of laboratory of Genetics
Postal Address :
Sevak str. 10 , Yerevan 375014, Armenia
WEB Address :
 
E-mail :
Tel/Fax :
/374-1 0 / 55 65 62, /374-10/ 281400
Mission statement :
Study the genetics of insect (silkworm) and genetic variance of the population of silkworm.

Name of Organization:
Armenian Agricultural University, Department of Agronomy, Subject Seruculture - Armenia, Yerevan
Contact Person :
Dr Anzhela Azizyan , associate professor
Postal Address :
Teryan str. , 74 , Yerevan 375025, Armenia
WEB Address :
 -
E-mail :
Tel/Fax :
/374-1 0 / 55 65 62, /374-10/
Mission statement :
Training the students in sericulture

 


Created by:
DREAMmedia Creative Studio
Генериране на страницата: 0.006179 секунди