Who are we

Uzbekistan national sericulture development plan

National plan for sericulture development in Uzbekistan

By

Dr H. Homidy, BACSA vice president for Caspian sea and Central Asia region; e-mail: fatima_khomidi@yahoo.com

Table of contents page
Section 1. Introduction 3
Section 2. Conditions and national strategy of silk branch development of the Republic of Uzbekistan 6
Section 3. The basic problems, conclusions and recommendations 23

 

Section 1. INTRODUCTION

The sericulture development of the Republic of Uzbekistan has a long history. There is information on existence of sericulture and silk-weaving on the territory of the Republic 4000 years ago in the Fergana valley, on sources of the Zaravshan river, and also in the south of the Republic.

For 1500 years (from the second part of 1 st century till 15 st century) existed the Great Silk Road form western China to Europe, going through the countries of all Asia and including territory of modern Uzbekistan, especially ancient cities like Samarkand and Bukhara.

In territory of Central Asia , especially on a line of the Great Silk Road - Samarkand , Shahrisabz, Bukhara , Turkestan and Fergana valley was widely advanced sericulture, silk-reeling and silk-weaving with application of gold embroidery elements.

In the beginning of 20 st century silkworm eggs were delivered from the countries of Europe , manufacture of cocoons and their processing were carried out by a handicraft way, and the silk fabrics, basically, were bought by foreign firms of the European countries. In the Republic was absent cocoon-reeling and silk-weaving industries.

In 1923, after establishment of Turksilk company manufacture of own silkworm eggs and after creation of silk-reeling factories manufacture of raw-silk had begun.

In 1922 the first scientific station of sericulture in Tashkent was created and later in 1927 the station was transformed into the Central Asian Research Institute of Sericulture(CARIS), nowadays renamed to the Uzbek Research Institute of Sericulture (URIS). Before independence of Uzbekistan the institute was the main scientific coordinating Centre in the former Union .

Till 1991 on the former Union territory Uzbekistan was on the first place on annual silkworm egg manufacture, about 600 thousand boxes (29 g/box) and fresh cocoons in volume 32-35 thousand tons.

In connection with disintegration of the Union which has entailed behind self infringement of social and economic mutual relations, easing of the control has had a negative effect on silkworm egg manufacture. Distribution of illnesses during feedings, infringement of technology, realization of delayed payment for cocoon production to the manufacturers etc. gradually have resulted in reduction of made cocoons quantity. To the present time 16300 tons of fresh cocoons are made.

Despite many problems of the transitive period from the centralized economy to free market system, the Government of Uzbekistan has managed to save a basis of cocoon and raw-silk manufacture. The country now is considered to be the third largest manufacturer in the world after China and India and remains the first manufacturer in the world per head of the population.

Condition of silk branch. Sericulture - one of the potentially important sectors of an agrarian industry of Uzbekistan . At transition to the new form of managing day-to-day the number of the farmers who will be engaged at sericulture increases. Now about 450 000 households are engaged in silkworm larvae cultivation and more than 2 millions people earn their living in a silk industry and in sphere of its trade. As a whole sericulture and silk industry provides more than 20 % of the general income of the population of Republic.

All organizations engaged at sericulture and a silk industry of the country are incorporated in the "Uzbek ipagi" association, where the enterprises of all technological process, form silkworm eggs manufacture and till manufacture of the ready goods - silk, blended fabrics and ready-to-wear clothes are vertically incorporated.

In "Uzbek ipagi" association there are enterprises, which prepare and initially process cocoons: 13 joint-stock regional unions, which include 122 cocoon drying enterprises, 14 silkworm egg factories, 3 parental (P 3 -P 1 ) silkworm egg breeding stations, 10 farms for mulberry sapling production, 7 silk-reeling factories, and also 6 joint venture enterprises, Uzbek Scientific Research Institute of Sericulture, "Shoyi" (silk) Research Institute, 8 auto-enterprises, 6 silk-weaving factories, Margilan mechanical factory.

At this time there are 14 silkworm egg factories, 3 pure-strain sericultural stations and 10 specialized sericultural farms producing 30 tons of pure-strain cocoons and more than 20 millions of mulberry tree seedlings. Totally our Republic produces more than 16 thousands tons of fresh cocoons or 6.5-7.5 thousands tons of dry cocoons a year. For this purpose it is necessary to produce 320-350 thousand boxes of silkworm eggs. Actually at factories of the Republic prepare 160-175 thousands of boxes. Silk-reeling factories with an output of 1600 tons produce only 800-1300 tons of raw silk; 6 silk-weaving factories produce about 2.5 millions meters of silk fabric.

Silkworm egg manufacture enterprises are in a pitiable condition. Existing in Uzbekistan 14 factories at annual capacity of about 600 000 boxes of silkworm eggs, in 2005 have made only about 240 000 boxes, that makes less than 50 % of needed silkworm eggs amount. The missing part (more than 50 %) of it ?Uzbek ipagi? provides by import of law quality silkworm eggs from China .

In silkworm egg production enterprises of Uzbekistan , owing to occurrence of illnesses the specific output of silkworm eggs from 1 kg of fresh cocoons makes only 33-35 g. Last years, because of easing the control after illnesses, the level of pebrine pest sharply has increased. In some factories, according to results of microanalysis, the level of pebrine pest reaches 30-50 %. Besides, by results of Governmental control, 20-25 % of prepared silkworm eggs are rejected.

The occurrence of especially dangerous illness pebrine pest is connected to an inadequate level of feeding rooms disinfection realisation, stock and equipment, infringement of breeding material selection technology, by not observance of the technological rules at industrial silkworm eggs preparation at the factories, out-of-date microscopic engineering both low staff qualification etc.

By the beginning of 2005 the fodder base of Republic consists of 109964.1 thousand pieces of linear plantings and 38115.9 hectars of mulberry tree plantations. The productivity of leaves at linear plantings from each tree makes 2.7 kg of leaves, and at muberry plantations 3.4 tons/hectar, that is a low parameter.

It is necessary especially to note, that because of easing attention to the sericulture branch fodder mulberry tree plantings were considered "ownerless", a level of agro-technics sharply has worsened, especially the system of branch-cutting. For this reason many plantings have an extremely inconvenient for operation form.

Now by the pest Glyphodis pylailis Walker are struck more than 41547 thousand pieces of linear plantings and 5011 hectars of mulberry tree plantations. Because of unsufficient acceptance of sruggle measures with the pest, area of its distribution continues to extend, brings serious damage and can even result in destruction of existing mulberry plantings.

In the whole development of silk branch of Uzbekistan now is before a range of old and new problems of cocoon, raw silk and silk products manufacture and selling volume preservation. The arisen situation consists in the following:

  • too poor quality of made cocoons and raw-silk resulting in low cost at the internal and external markets;
  • existing material base of science being old and unsufficient for decision of arising questions and problems of the branch;
  • loss of silkworm eggs production volume and silkworm cocoon crop because of deseases;
  • poor harvest of mulberry leaves, accompanying by the large expenses of work at cultivation and operation;
  • absence of silkworm breeds, genetically stable against illnesses and climatic conditions of their cultivation, that results in made silkworm eggs quality decrease, not appropriate to the international standards;
  • absence of equipment for silkworm larvae cultivation and high labour expenditures in aggregate resulting in a poor harvest of cocoons from each box and as a result in high cost of manufacturing;
  • preservation of old technological manufacture process and control system, and also absence of the commercial approach at production;
  • unsufficient quantity of the qualified training staff, absence of technical council, educational materials and visual aids, training and improvement of professional skills of the staff, marketing study and distribution of the new information;
  • weak coordination among sericulture branch and other sectors such as forestry, public health services, environment, with the purpose of additional support reception from the Government, non-governmental organizations and private sector;

The short offers on development prospect of the Republic's silk branch. The decision of the problem interfering economic development of silk branch is possible by creation of the national silk branch support program by the State, directed on strengthening of internal potential of sericulture, strengthening of scientific and technical opportunities of research institutes, improvement of manufacture control system, rise of an economic efficiency at preparation of high-quality free from illnesses silkworm eggs of highly productive hybrids, allocation of the additional ground areas for creation of new types of highly productive mulberry tree plantations, maintenance of existing fodder base protection also protect them from illnesses and pests, correct organization of silkworm larvae feeding realization and preparation of cocoons in the new form of managing farms, realization of silk-processing enterprises modernisation, creation of uniform politics of the income obtained distribution between the subjects of branch and attraction of the foreign investments.

Elaboration of branch development program for the 2007-2012 period. Association "Uzbek ipagi " together with the Ministry of agriculture and water facilities, Ministry of economy, Ministry of finance s, M inistry on external economic connections, Committee on economic inconsistency of the enterprises, Local authorities have to develop for the Cabinet?s consideration a package of the documents including measures on the further perfection of "Uzbek ipagi" association activity, and also a complex program of silk branch development for the period 2007-2012 , providing:

  • gradual expansion and condition improvement of fodder base, increase of fresh cocoons manufacture and improvement of their qualitative parameters with orientation for the maximal processing inside the country;
  • restoration and development of highly productive silkworm eggs domestic manufacture;
  • creation of the cocoon manufacturers stimulation system ;
  • complex of measures directed on improvement of the financial condition of the economically insolvent enterprises, with reduction of their number, including prolongation till July 1, 2008 given by the decision of the Cabinet of 9.09.2003 ?390, delay on payments in the budget and non-budget funds of the enterprises and organizations of "Uzbek ipagi" association;
  • perfection of silk branch enterprises taxation system, including clearing sold to agricultural enterprises silkworm eggs and dry cocoons from the VAT;
  • attraction of the direct foreign investments for equipment renewal of silk-reeling and silk-weaving manufactures, finishing of ready production quality up to conformity to the world standards, expansion of assortment of made production and saturation by them of a home market;
  • ncrease of an export potential of branch by expansion of production with added cost .

Section 2. CONDITION S A ND NATIONAL STRATEGY OF SILK BRANCH DEVELOPMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN

Now functioning in republic 14 silkworm egg factories, 3 parental (P 3 -P 1 ) silkworm egg breeding stations, 10 specialized sericultural farms producing 30 tons of pure-strain cocoons and more than 20 millions of mulberry tree seedlings. Totally , the Republic in 2005 has made 16300 tons of fresh cocoons or more than 6.0 thousand tons of dry cocoons. At silk worm egg production enterprises were prepared 160-175 thousand boxes of silkworm eggs, 7 silk-reeling factories at capacity of 1600 tons actually make 800-1300 tons of raw- silk, 6 silk-weaving factories make about 2.5 millions metres of silk fabrics.

The reception of high-quality cocoons in many respects is caused by quantity and quality of mulberry tree leaves. A crop and nutritiousness of a leaf , in turn, depend on mulberry variety , plantation type , agro-technics level, and also presence of a moisture and other elements in it .

The inventory of mulberry tree plantings is carried out. In the R epublic are presented 46.7 thousand hectares of plantations and 97.4 mln . pieces of mulberry tree l inear plantings. The leaf productivity at linear plantings from each tree makes 2.7 kg, and at mulberry tree plantations 3.4 t/ha , that is a low parameter.

The fodder base of sericulture for today basically consists of the hybrid forms and local population "Khasak" . The created perspective mulberry tree breeds in manufacture make about 3-5 % of the general area of plantations.

It is important , that to more than a half of mother seed plantations for today updating is necessary, as the seed material not completely satisfy the modern requirements.

As a result of intensive exploitation and after the expiration of time mulberry planting grow old, the productivity of leaves is reduced.

It is necessary especially to note, that because of easing attention to the sericulture branch fodder mulberry tree plantings were considered "ownerless", a level of agro-technics sharply has worsened, especially the system of branch-cutting. For this reason many plantings have an extremely inconvenient for operation form.

Now by the pest Glyphodis pylailis Walker are struck more than 41547 thousand pieces of linear plantings and 5011 hectars of mulberry tree plantations. Because of unsufficient acceptance of sruggle measures with the pest, area of its distribution continues to extend, brings serious damage and can even result in destruction of existing mulberry plantings.

Last years, due to the initiative of the President, attention on the part of the state the purposeful job of silk production manufacture increase and increase of an export potential of the enterprises is carried out , its pro ved by a number of government ?s decision .

As a result of the international symposium on revival and development of silk industry held in April, 2005 in Tashkent , according to t he order of the President and the Cabinet the program of steady development of silk branch is developed:

Development of sericulture fodder base. According to the given program by ministerial Council of Republic Karakalpakstan and local authorities are developed the measures on sericulture plantations and also linear plantings creation are authorized in view of unsuitable plantations replacement and expansion of plantings ensuring need in mulberry leaves in view of prospective growth of silkworm cocoon manufacture.

In 2005 creation of new mulberry tree plantations on 4 ths h ? for 5 months is stipulated , i.e. are planted 1.7 t h s h ? (42.5 %). Left 2.3 ths h? it is planned to plant in the autumn. It will ensure needs of branch in mulberry leaves , stipulated by the decision of the Cabinet of April 5, 2002 ?118.

It is recommended to create mulberry plantation s from a number of regioned an d economically-valuable mulberry tree varieties : Tajik seedless , Pioneer, October, Surkh-tut , Uzbek, Winter-stable , Mankent , Golodnostepskiy -6 and SANIISH -33, mulberry hybrids Topcross -2, Topcross -3 and Uzbekistan (table 1) and provide their reproduction in specialized sericulture facilities according to the table 2 ( diagram 1, 2 and 3) .

These breeds are propagated by crossing the new parental mulberry forms of the hybrids obtained giving in the first generation a homogeneous selection material, distinguished by high efficiency and nutritiousness of leaves. The leaf productivity of mulberry hybrids considerably exceeds a control hybrid on the average o f 42.6 - 76.6 %. At account of cocoon output from each hectare of plantings at new hybrids excess from the control 84.8 - 103.1 % , similar dynamics is traced concerning raw-silk output.

Table 1. Economically-valuable attributes of regioned mulberry varieties, recommended by commission for further duplication in sericultural facilities of the "Uzbek - ipagi" association.

The table 2. Manufacture of a planting material in the Republic of Uzbekistan for the period of 2005 - 2010

Note: the grafting of seedlings is carried out by an initial material of breeds Tadjik seedless, Uzbek, Surkh-tut, SANIISH-33, Pioneer, October, Mankent, Winter-hardy and Golodnostepskiy-6.

Despite of labour input of vegetative duplication the new mulberry varieties differ by high leaf productivity and nutritiousness. The output of fresh cocoons from each hectare of used plantations of these breeds makes within the limits of 8.7 - 15.7 centners, that exceeds control variants on 32.3 - 61.7 %.

The rules of the transfer order of mulberry tree plantations on balance of territorial procuring organizations of the "Uzbek ipagi " association , and also about the order of reserving of linear mulberry plantings for farms are developed. The rules provide:

  • On end of commissions on farms reorganization to pass in long-term rent (50 years) to procuring organizations of the "Uzbek ipagi " association mulberry tree plantations, with an opportunity of sub-rent to farms, or creation of a special industrial infrastructure on care of mulberry plantings;
  • Reserving for farms linear mulberry plantings taking place on border or near to the sowing areas along with the contracts of land rent;
  • As stimulation of farms at a care of plantations they are authorized to use land between the trees for sowing agricultural cultures at the own discretion for the subsequent realization, and also the mechanism of mulberry tree leaves realization on a paid basis is studied.

Development of domestic silkworm egg production. The release of products from natural silk requires manufacture of high-quality raw material. In this case it would be desirable to note, that made cocoon production from silkworm hybrids, nowadays existing in R epublic, does not fully satisfy needs of the industry. Application of out-of-date silkworm egg production technology, feeding of larvae of out-of-date silkworm breeds and hybrids, occurrence of illnesses and etc. resulted in the tendency of qualitative and quantative cocoon production volume reduction (diagram 4).

It is known, that the successful development of sericulture first of all depends on a condition of silkworm egg manufacture, in particular from quantity and quality of hybrid eggs mad e .

Existing in Uzbekistan silkworm egg production factories at annual capacity about 600 000 boxes, in 2005 have made only about 240 000 boxes, owing to occurrence of illnesses the specific output of silkworm eggs from 1 kg of fresh cocoons makes only 33-35 g. In some factories, by results of the microanalysis, the level of pebrine reaches 30-50 %. Besides, by results of State control , 20-25 % of prepared silkworm eggs is rejected. Prepared volume makes less than 50 % of required volume of the country in silkworm eggs , a missing part (more than 50 %) the association "Uzbek Ipagi" is annually compelled to provide by import of bad quality silkworm eggs from China .

The regulated technological process, established at these enterprises, of hybrid silkworm eggs manufacture, usual to 40 - s, is imperfect, since is based on manual selection of pedigree cocoons, use of a weight principle of cocoons division on sex , application of isolative paper bags for laying silkworm eggs by the moths, that does not provide qualitative selection of pedigree cocoons on, growth of efficiency duplicated breeds and, naturally, silkworm egg quality.

Prepared breeding and industrial silkworm eggs do not provide needs of republic in silkworm eggs and they are behind the quality of foreign analogues. Hence, the production of high-quality hybrid silkworm eggs , first of all, is connected to necessity radical ly change of the existing technology of egg production .

In the long term development of sericulture branch of Uzbekistan is directed basically on manufacture of high-quality cocoons, satisfying requirement of the international market, first of all it depends on presence in manufacture of highly productive silkworm breeds and hybrids, highly effective technology of silkworm egg manufacture, i.e. from quantity and quality of made hybrid silkworm eggs .

During many years in branch was no breed-change, in manufacture were reared breed s and hybrids with low productive parameters.

The scientists of esearch I nstitute of Sericulture, improving selection process of new breeds and hybrids, for short time have developed 19 pure breeds and 25 industrial hybrids of silkworm . The new hybrids were passed to State test, from them 14 hybrids, pas sed tests and were accepted to regionization .

In connection with the assignment of the Cabinet by the Uzbek research-and-production centre of the agriculture together with Uzbek Research institute of sericulture f rom available 14 domestic hybrids by results of tests are selected 9 hybrids (Uzbekistan 5, Uzbekistan 6, “ uron 1, Ipakchi 1 x Ipakchi 2, Ipakchi 2 x Ipakchi 1, Bahor 1, Bahor 2 and Khotira ) with most best parameters on efficiency and quality answering the world standards and the measures on improvement of selection work and creation of new breeds and hybrids of domestic silkworm eggs , development of new technologies of its preparation (table 3 and 4) and are carried out .

The introduction in manufacture of new national hybrids appreciablly adds productivity of cocoons, thus the specific expenditures of cocoons and totally of labour is reduced, reeling of cocoons of new domestic selection surpass base industrial hybrids on silk-containance on 4.4 %, high sorts of cocoons -9.4 % and thus the specific expenditures of dry cocoons for production of one kg of raw- silk is reduced on 20.4 absolute % .

At observance of agro-technical conditions, these national hybrids are capable to give a stable high crop of cocoons with good technological parameters.

According to the developed measures on preparation of elite and superelite material of national silkworm hybrids on at parental (P 3 -P 1 ) silkworm egg breeding stations and silkworm egg factories of Republic by 2008 should reach 19500 boxes (table 5 and 6).

The volume increase industrial silkworm eggs manufacture is planned by new national silkworm hybrids . On silkworm egg enterprises of association "Uzbek ipagi " by 2008 volume of prepared silkworm eggs should fully satisfy needs of silk branch (table 7 and diagram 5 .)

Table 3

* Note: the given data is average on Institute and State tests results. KR -1, Andizhan - 2, Bukhara - 3, Dzhizak - 4, Kashkadarinskai - 5, Navoi - 6, Namangan - 7, Samarkand - 8, Surkhandarya - 9, Syrdarya - 10, Sashkent - 11 , Fergana - 12 , Khorezm - 13

Table 4. Economically-valuable attributes of silkworm hybrids recommended by a commission for the further breeding on silkworm egg production enterprises of the "Uzbek ipagi " association(Regionised the introduced hybrids).

 

Note: the given data is average on Institute and State tests results.   – - 1
Samarkand - 8 Bukhara - 3 Surkhandarya - 9 Andizhan - 2
Syrdarya - 10 Kashkadarinskai - 5 Tashkent - 11 Dzhizak - 4
Fergana - 12 Namangan - 7 Khorezm - 13 Navoi - 6


Table 5. The preparation plan of elite and superelite material of national (regionised and introduced) silkworm hybrids for breeding atparental (P 3-P 1 ) silkworm egg breeding stations and silkworm egg production factories of the Republic for the period 2005-2008

Table 6. The preparation plan of elite and superelite material of regionised silkworm hybrids for breeding at parental (P 3 -P 1 ) silkworm egg breeding stations and silkworm egg production factories of the Republic for the period 2006-2008

Table 7. Industrial silkworm eggs preparation from the new national silkworm hybrids at silkworm egg enterprises of "Uzbek Ipagi" association for the period of 2005-2008 (in thousand pieces)

 

Table 8. The task on manufacture of fresh cocoons in regions of the Republic of Uzbekistan for the period 2006-2010

Contract fulfilment. In 2005 in the Republic were prepared 16.3 thousand tons of fresh cocoons, that corresponds to a level of 2004.

General cost of prepared cocoons makes 13.2 mlrd. sums.

According to the decision of the Cabinet of April 5 2002, No118 the silk branch by 2010 should make of 30 000 tons of fresh cocoons, including in 2006 manufacture of 23000 tons of cocoons (table 8 and diagram 6) is planned.

With the purpose of task fulfillment of the 2006 plan given by Government the "Uzbek ipagi" association together with local authorities and Ministry of agriculture and water facilities have concluded the contracts with 43072.0 farmers and 1273.0 facilities. The commercial banks are ready to give when due hereunder distribution of the credits for cocoon manufacture advancement.

Organization and realization of repeated silkworm feedings.

In conditions of economy transfer on the market relations before sericulture branch the important task is put to increase silkworm cocoon manufacture and volumes of export.

Climatic conditions of Uzbekistan favour to manufacture of cocoons on all extent of mulberry tree vegetation. At the appropriate care of plantings it is possible to have fodder leaves from spring till deep autumn.

The decision of the given problem is possible at organization of repeated silkworm larvae feeding . Thus prime tasks are:

  • Creation of the specialized plantations for different rearing seasons and realization of agro-technical care and operation of mulberry trees;
  • Application of repeated rearing technology , consisting of silkworm eggs incubation agro-technics , rearing of siklkworm larvae of young(1-3) and older (4 - 5) stages , mounting of cocoons, harvesting and delivery of cocoons;
  • Application of ways of larvae protection from illnesses by use of antiseptics and biological stimulators and protection of mulberry plantings from pest.

The realization of repeated rearing in specialized capital rearing houses with application of science achievements , will allow to remove dependence of sericulture on season , its dissociation, to increase manufacture of high-quality cocoons in 2-3 times with smaller expenses and in a result considerably to increase efficiency af sericulture and to lower its cost price .

As against to spring, repeated rearings pass in less favorable feeding conditions and external environment. In particular, at higher temperature and low humidity of air, the contents of nutritious elements and moisture decreases, that results in deterioration of leaves assimilation .

To begin rearing in the summer and autumn is possible at any time, however it is necessary to create favorable hidro-thermal modes and to have such forage, which on qualitative structure would correspond larva?s stages .

For production of a high crop of cocoons the large importance has correct definition of rearing term s , as for each silkworm larva stage there should correspond mulberry leaves of the certain stage . In this case larvae grow quickly, normally develop and make full-weight cocoons with high silk-containance. In order to use fodder base in a better way and create necessary conditions for rearing depending on a season of year, silkworm egg hutching should be in the most favorable terms, in view of zone features of sericulture areas.

In view of climatic conditions of Uzbekistan , depending on zones situation, more suitable for silkworm larvae cultivation at summer-autumn rearing season and creation of special mulberry tree plantations and premises, the probable opportunity of repeated rearing realization is created on separate regions of Republic (tab. 8).

The table 9. Settlement parameters of fresh cocoons preparation opportunity at repeated realization of silkworm larva feedings

* US$ 1 = 1200 sums

At 10 % use of existing fodder base according to recommended new technology, volume of repeated rearing on republic can make 15248 boxes, at obtaining on the average from each box till 45 kg of cocoons, it is in addition possible to prepare 686.2 tons of fresh cocoons for the sum 555 817 200 sums. In view of a deduction of the charges on reeling realization, the expected pure profit from repeated feedings makes 426 589 700 sums.

Financial conditions of the "Uzbek ipagi" association system enterprises. Totally financial condition of the enterprises is still difficult. In this connection by State committee on demonopolization, support of a competition and the businesses together with association "Uzbek ipagi " developed and authorized measures on financial improvement of the economically - insolvent enterprises of association.

13 enterprises are in the plan of measures. At 11 enterprises in 2005 the financial sources will be refined at the expense of manufacture increase and realization of ready production, collecting debits , realization through a stock exchange of the real estate of objects, not used in manufacture, and good -material assets, reduction of the non-productive expenditures etc., that will allow to stabilize their financial condition.

Cocoon Processing. The quality of cocoon raw material depends on observance of cocoon primary processing technology, conditions of transportation, storage etc.

In manufacture the reception of unripe cocoons takes place, the technology of their transportation and storages is broken. At reception of fresh cocoons the rules on preparation and primary processing of cocoons are not observed.

For processing cocoons in Uzbekistan is present 546 drying equipments, including — -150 -415 pieces, — -4.5 -51 pieces, chamber (mechanical) -8 pieces, import - 8 pieces, box type such as "Simplex" - 55 pieces and steam killers-9 pieces. The congestion of units last years on the average makes 44.0-54.0 %.

Naturally, at long operation the existing units, being power-intensive, often fail, the deficiency of spare parts takes place.

In the world in silkworm cultivation and accordingly in manufacture of silk 50 countries are engaged, from which 2 give more than 90 % of world productions - China -75 % and India - 19 %. Further places occupy accordingly Brasil and Uzbekistan .

By 1998 manufacture of raw-silk filaments in Uzbekistan has made less than 500 tons. After acceptance of concrete measures on the part of government and reorganization of silk branch, with the purpose of transition to a qualitatively new stage of development volume of manufacture by 2001 has increased almost in 2.5 times. Now all efforts are directed on rise of manufacture.

Besides natural silk fabrics production in 6 silk-weaving enterprises of the association the cotton fabrics are made. Volume of fabrics manufacture is increased from year to year and by 2005 makes 72018 ths m 2 .

The similar picture is traced on volumes of consumer goods manufacture, which have achieved in 2005 4368.6 mln. sum or about US$ 4051.0 ths.

Now structure of association includes 6 joint ventures on processing silk, which have made in 2005 production for the sum 2438.5 mln. sum or US$ 200.6 ths which is completely delivered on export.

In branch the growth of production export is annually increased. In 2005 this parameter has achieved US$16.321 mln.

Attraction of foreign investments and adjustment of trade-economic relations.

Work on increase of economic potential of branch is going on all production phases, from increase of fodder base for preparation of raw cocoon material, industrial processing of cocoons down to manufacture of ready fabrics, their advertising and progress in the international market.

The trade-economic connections with companies from the countries of Europe and South-east Asia are adjusted. Production of silk industry of Uzbekistan is delivered to such countries as Japan , Italy , Switzerland , China , India , Singapore etc.

Is created and successfully functioning joint Uzbek-Chinese enterprise " Khveshen-Bukhara Co Ltd" on manufacture of 180 tons of raw-silk strings of a 3A class annually for export.

Together with the Japanese companies "Marubeni" and "Kaneb" is created JV "Silk Road" on manufacture of 156 tons of silk yarn, which is completely sent on export and, in opinion of the experts, on quality does not concede Chinese and Brazilian.

Rhythmically work and ship delivery of production on export joint ventures "Tonmen", "Khadan", "Nubajakhu", specializing on processing silk wastes.

One of major directions of association?s activity is the attraction of the foreign investments in branch, mainly direct, with the purpose of quality increase of raw silk material processing, modernization of the silk weaving enterprises, manufacture of competitive ready production and increase of export volumes.

With participation of the foreign investors the projects of silk weaving manufactures modernization at the following enterprises are developed:

According to the decision of Government 25 investment projects of gradual realizations of them till 2010 are prepared by the direct foreign investments and credits for a total sum about US$ 31.2 mln. and realization of 10 silk-reeling and 5 silk-weaving factories modernization, which will let organization of 9 new manufactures on release of ready products, industrial production manufacture volume increase in 3.5 times, volume of export in 5 times, in addition creation of more than 5.7 thousand new workplaces.

With the Italian firm " Jaminola group " the work on the project of silk-weaving manufacture modernization on joint-stock company "Atlas" is going on in Namangan, total cost of which makes 54 mln. euro. The circuit of financing is fulfilled and the consent of the Italian bank " San Paolo IMI" on financing of the project and insurance agency "Sache" on insurance of the demand line of credit is received. The general capacity of the modernized manufacture will make 250 tons of raw-silk strings and 8.5 mln. meters of ready silk fabrics.

The construction of factory on silk wastes processing and production of 1 mln. pieces of ready knitted products from silk and mixed yarn per one year in the Andizhan region by the direct investments of ?Uelay group? firm ( China ) in amount of US$ 5 mln.

Besides that US$ 6 mln. will be attracted as free aid from Government of Peoples Republic of China on creation of an industrial complex with the completed silk processing (from manufacture of fresh cocoons and finishing with ready products manufacture) in the Andizhan region.

The realization of complex measures on new joint ventures cereation and modernisation of the enterprises of silk branch by foreign investments attraction will allow considerably to increase the export potential of association "Uzbek ipagi", having changed structure of export by increase of production densities with high added cost in total amount of export.

Section 3. THE BASIC PROBLEMS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Sericulture of Uzbekistan now is economically not profitable branch of a griculture for the following reasons: too poor quality of made silkworm eggs , cocoons and raw- silk, that doesn?t satisfy present needs of the market; absence of the stable silk market, that results in decrease of cost on made production; the existing material base of the science is old and unsufficient for the giving decision of arising questions and problems of branch; losses of made silkworm eggs volume and crop of cocoons because of silkworm and mulberry tree illnesses presence ; a poor harvest of mulberry tree leaves accompanying by the large expenses of work at cultivation and operation; absence of silkworm breed s , genetically st able against illnesses and climatic conditions of their cultivation, that results in decrease of made silkworm eggs quality, not appropriate to the international standards; a bsence of breeding houses and equipment for silkworm larvae cultivation and high labour expenditures, in aggregate resulting in a poor harvest of cocoons from each box and as a result high cost of manufactures; preservation of traditional technological process of manufacture and control system, and also absence of the commercial approach at production; unsufficient amount of the qualified training staff, marketing study, absence of technical advice, educational materials and visual aids, training and improvement of professional skill s of the staff and distribution of the new information.

In connection with the situation there is a necessity for development of state program on revival and development of silk branch following next basic directions:

1. Expansion and improvement of fodder base conditions; replacement of low - productive mulberry varieties and hybrids by more productive ones; replacement less productive linear plantings by highly productive mulberry plantations and realization of their protection from the agricultural pests and illegal cutting.
2. Transfer of parental (P 3 -P 1 ) silkworm egg breeding stations and silkworm egg factories to a new regulated technological process of hybrid silkworm egg manufacture, ensuring needs of regions in high-quality eggs, competitive to foreign analogues.
3. Transfer of sericulture on economically favourable technology of silkworm rearing, allowing manufacture of cocoons during all of the vegetative period of mulberry tree; realization of centralized silkworm larvae rearing of younger ages and further rearing of them in specialized sericulture farms;
4. Creation of complex measures directed on improvement of the financial condition of the economically insolvent enterprises, with reduction of their number and perfection of the silk branch enterprises taxation system, including release of sold to agricultureal enterprises silkworm eggs and dry cocoons from the VAT;
5. Attraction of the direct foreign investments for re-equipment of silk-reeling and silk-weaving manufactures, quality increase of ready production up to conformity to the world standards, expansion of production assortment, saturation by them of a home market and increase of an export potential of branch by expansion of production with added cost share.

 


Created by:
DREAMmedia Creative Studio
Генериране на страницата: 0.017730 секунди