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Tajikistan national sericulture development plan

 

National plan for sericulture revival and development in Tajikistan
By
M. A. Karimov
BACSA National coordinator for Tajikistan ; e-mail: xuantrong65ru@yahoo.com
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS Page
Chapter 1. Introduction 3
Chapter 2. The status of sericulture presently 3
Chapter 3. Strengthening of the forage reserve 4
Chapter 4 . Development of silkworm egg production 6
Chapter 5. Increase in volumes of cocoon production and introduction of new technologies 8
Chapter 6. Scientific maintenance, education of the staff and development the international economic relations 8
Chapter 7. The conclusions 9
Chapter 1. Introduction

The sericulture in Tajikistan is one of the basic and the the most ancient branch of national economy and has ancient historical roots . One of specificity of the branch consists that it is subdivided into a number of other sub-branches which are:

  • moriculture, dealing with cultivation of mulberry plantings with the purpose of obtaining high-quality leaves serving as a forage for the silkworm larvae.
  • silkworm egg production which tasks are the obtaining high-quality silkworm eggs.
  • silkworm larvae rearing with a view of obtaining fresh cocoons .
  • preparation and primary processing of cocoons.

At present the only one cocoon producer in Tajikistan is the Republican enterprise “Pilla” and the sericulture is under the supervision of Ministries of the industry.

The sericulture d evelopment in Tadjikistan has a centuries-old history. Historical sources testify that manufacture of silk in the Central Asia existed 4000 more years ago. Since the first half of the 1 st century A.D. and till 15-th century between China and Europe there was a trading way which passed through the countries of the Central Asia. In 1877 after issue of the book "China" which author was the German histori ti an Ferdinand Rihtgofen (1833-1905), this way began to be named “ Silk road” . It has played a big role in economic and cultural development of peoples of China and the Central Asia and, in particular, rendered positive influence on sericulture development in the states of the Central Asia.

Chapter 2. The status of sericulture presently

The sericulture in Republic Tajikistan is special branch both having historical roots and our country is one of the leading republic of the Central Asia in cocoon production, thus making more than 3 thousand tons annually. This branch includes also cultivation of mulberry, silkworm egg production, cocoons production and their primary processing.

The biggest fresh cocoon crop in the republic has been obtained in 1991 which has made 4528 tons. At the same time unfortunately, for last years the cocoon production decreased. In 1995 in republic 3150 tons of cocoons have been made, and in 2005 the volume of cocoon production has made 3244 tons.

Also volumes of silkworm eggs produced at the factories have decreased, especially at the Ходжентском egg factory.

Principal cause of reduction in manufacture of cocoons is absence of money resources at the processing enterprises and disinterest of farmers. Thus demand for production from silk and silk fabrics grows.

Now domestic sericultural industry is in a crisis condition. For an exit from this condition and increase of efficiency of branch at the present stage it is necessary a scientifically proved program of sericulture development for 2007-2015.

In Tajikistan some projects such as reconstruction of the forage reserve, mulberry and silkworm selection and modern technology of qualitative silk production are necessary to develop. It is especially necessary to make reconstruction of silkworm rearing technology, requiring a solid state support.

The industrial base of sericulture in Republic of Tajikistan is characterized by the following figures:

Number of sericultural households in Tajikistan

 

Table 1
Regions
Number of households
Хатлонская region
28296
Согдийская region 27055
РПП 5380
Total number of sericulture farmers in the country
60731 х 5=303655
303655
Number of silkworm egg boxes reared during the period 2001-2005 (one box = 29 g) Table 2
Regions
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
Total for the whole country
62898
62645
62894
61206
60256
Согдийская region
28376
27005
27055
27076
26579
Хатлонская region
27309
28063
28326
27390
26970
РПП (enterprise)
7213
7427
7513
6740
6707
Fresh cocoon production in Tajikistan during the period 2001-2005
Table 3
Regions Cocoon production in ton
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Total for the whole country 3045 . 6 3265 2690 3134 . 3 3244
Согдийская region 1559 . 6 1691 1093 1606 . 7 1696
Хатлонская region 1181 1231 1243 1225 . 1 1237
РПП (enterprise) 305 343 354 302 . 5 311
First of all, it is necessary to provide qualitative improvement of the forage reserve of sericulture (mulberry plantations) on the basis of creation/introduction of highly productive perspective mulberry varieties and expansion of plantations on their basis. Scientists - breeders should conduct a hard work on creation and introduction in the branch high-yielding and having high silk shell percentage silkworm breeds and hybrids.

Chapter 3. Strengthening of the forage reserve

 

Manufacture of qualitative cocoons depends on amount and quality of mulberry leaves. Efficiency and caloric content of leaves first of all depends on agrotechnical works, and also moisture of leaves and other elements.

During the last years due to various reasons the forage reserve of the sericulture was considerably reduced, that had led to decrease in quality of cocoons and volumes of their production.

The further sericulture development is impossible without strengthening the forage reserve.

The special great value for development of a modern sericulture in Tajikistan is represented with the forage reserve, the basic on cultivation of highly productive mulberry varieties with high fodder and nutritious advantages which is characterized by the following table:

Planting mulberry trees in Tajikistan

 

Table 4
Years
Plan, thousands saplings
Really planted, thousands saplings
%
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
900
1300
1700
1700
2500
545
845
1286
1211
1357 . 3
60 . 5
65
75 . 6
71 . 2
54 . 3
Establishment of new mulberry plantations in Tajikistan
Table 4
Years
Plan, ha
Really planted
%
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
35
45
55
65
80
8
60
51
42
57
22 . 9
133 . 3
92 . 7
64 . 6
72
Number of mulberry trees and plantations in Tajikistan
Table 5
Regions
Number of mulberry trees, thousands
Out of them in exploitation, thousands
Mulberry plantations in ha
Number of trees in the plantations, thousands
Out of them in exploitation, thousands
Total number of mulberry trees, thousands
In the whole country
23961
20924
2835
7087 . 5
2658
31048 . 5
Сугдская region
6905
5476
1851
4627 . 5
1801
11532 . 5
Хатлонская region
13150
2148
384
960
313
14110
РПП (enterprise)
3906
3300
600
1500
544
5406
Meanwhile the share of highly productive varieties in the mulberry trees in Tajikistan is no more than 1 % in spite of the fact that on efficiency they in 1 . 5-2 times surpass the local variety Hasak and hybrids of free pollination , characterized with small leaves. The n ew plantings are carried out by a low-yield hybrid mulberry and the forage for silkworm larvae does not suffice, despite of expansion of plantations.

For a further sericulture development in Tadjikistan it is necessary to increase considerably productivity of mulberry by replacement of the existing low-yielding varieties and introduction in manufacture of highly productive perspective varieties and hybrids of mulberry.

 

An a dvanced industrial sericulture should have high-efficiency forage reserve , based on cultivation of high-yielding varieties , suitable for feeding of larvae in the different seasons.

The Republican Sericulture Experiment Station, under the Tajik Academy of A gricultural Science is undertaking the research work in sericulture. In the station there is 1 h а mother plantation for obtaining seeds and 2 ha collection of 20 promising mulberry varieties.

Under the management of the Sericulture station it is necessary to organize 10 h а seed-mother plantations of mulberry , from them 5 h а in the southern and 5 ha in the northern zones of Tajikistan. From the mother plantation s shall be produced mulberry seedlings and saplings from high-yielding mulberry varieties which are present in the collection of Sericulture station.

By the mother plantations for obtaining mulberry cuttings are produced saplings of high yielding varieties.

In Tajikistan in order to replace the existing trees with new high-yielding varieties and hybrids of mulberry it will need 5-10 years.

With this purpose the increase in volumes of planting of mulberry from 2500 thousand pieces in 2005 up to 3100 thousand pieces in 2015, and the area of mother mulberry plantations from 80 h а in 2005 up to 100 h а in 2015 is stipulated.

In view of that in the last years a wide circulation of pests of mulberry takes place, such as " ognevka ", therefore most sharply there is the problem of taking of urgent measures on struggle against harmful insects. Fast growth and distribution of these insects testify that in the near future their distribution can capture all trees of republic. At least t riple chemical processing of mulberry is necessary for increase of efficiency of chemical struggle against this pest. But, for the lack of means actions on struggle against these insects have not been carried out. In this connection it's necessary the Government of Republic Tajikistan to consider the given problem and to take necessary measures.

Chapter 4. Development of silkworm egg production

The q ualitative silkworm eggs are the basis of sericulture development . The silkworm egg production is an integral part of sericulture . In this connection, it is necessary improvement of selection work in the egg production factories, at the parental lines breeding enterprise of the city of Vahdat and the Republican Sericulture Experiment Station in order to produce silkworm eggs of new breeds and also fuller satisfaction of the country needs . The “Pilla” enterprise plans to increase the hybrid silkworm egg production in Tajikistan up to 60-70000 boxes (1 box=29 g).

Planed silkworm egg production in Tajikistan during the period 2006-2011

 

Table 6
 
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
For the whole country including:
28500
60000
62000
63000
63800
66000
Душанбинский egg production factory
12500
30000
30000
31000
31800
33000
Ходжентский egg production factory
13000
28000
30000
30000
30000
30800
Вахдат Parental egg station
3000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2200
The Sericulture Experiment Station has a close cooperation with the Uzbek Sericulture Research Institute in Tashkent about selection works and it is in common created new highly productive breeds of the silkworm Tajikistan - 1, Tajikistan - 2 and their hybrid combination, Khojend 1, Khojend 2 and their hybrid combination comes to the end test at the State commission on testing agricultural plants and animal varieties.

The Sericulture station also commonly to carry out research activity on the silkworm breeding with Душанбинском and Худжандском silkworm egg production factories. In 1980-84 research-and-production work in manufacture of silkworm eggs with the purpose to mechanize the labor-consuming works was started in Душанбинском egg production factory. For introduction the Japanese technologies in the silkworm egg production and rearing Japanese eggs in conditions of Tajikistan a big volume of work was carried out, but the results were not evident. It is necessary to renew and continue the started work. In common corporation with "Asia Silk" and the joint venture " VТ Silk " we cooperate about evolving new high-yielding breeds of the silkworm, centralized larval rearing in younger age under a film, repeatedly summer-autumn rearings, preparation of P 1 eggs etc., and some positive results have been obtained.

 

The silkworm egg production factories in the republic are capable to satisfy the country needs by locally produced silkworm eggs. But, in connection with that the cocoons obtained from the eggs, made on the egg factories of republic, do not meet to the international standards, thus the use of these eggs is very low.

Therefore it is necessary to improve local egg quality, produced at the factories. For this purpose, it is necessary, using new silkworm breeds from Uzbekistan or delivered from other countries to make perspective highly productive breeds. Before full maintenance of sericulture by local silkworm eggs, to continue cooperation with foreign investors and annually to deliver necessary quantity of eggs in the republic. To develop necessary actions on prevention of the infectious disease "pebrine" and other egg diseases in the course of egg production at the factories and the parental egg breeding enterprise of the city of Vahdat . For maintenance of work Ходжентского silkworm egg production factory and the parental egg breeding enterprise of the city of Vahdat in full capacity to make major innovation of the facilities and provide them with new equipment. For maintenance of full functioning breeding sites of the factories and the Breeding enterprise of the city of Vahdat on manufacture pedigree eggs the silkworm parental lines rearing/breeding to be made according to the Decision of the Government of Republic Tajikistan from April, 7, 1999 № 132. And also, with a view of improvement of breeding work and maintenance of manufacture of highly productive silkworm breeds to consider the problem on clearing of the tax of egg factories and the Breeding enterprise of the city of Vahdat and entering of respective alterations and additions into the legislation of Republic Tajikistan.

For realization of these purposes it is necessary to provide factories and breeding facilities with the new process equipment, to arrange on prevention of pebrine infection and other egg diseases.

Chapter 5. Increase in volumes of cocoon production and introduction of new technologies

With a view of satisfaction of needs of silk-reeling manufacture by raw material and increase in export capacity of republic it is necessary to liquidate a crisis situation in sericulture and to return on the advanced positions of former years. But deep crisis does not allow this process of revival to be carried out by fast rates.

To provide gradual increase in volumes of manufacture of cocoons till 2015 in view of an existing forage reserve. For preparation of high quality cocoons and industrialization of manufacture of cocoons to provide silkworm rearing houses/rooms in capacity from 3 to 5 boxes of eggs (1 box=29 g). To ask foreign investors and National bank of Tajikistan to allocate the preferential long-term credit for creation silkworm rearing houses/rooms. In addition, for carrying out of major overhaul of objects and the equipment of sericultural enterprises annually to transfer 10 percent of the net profit obtained by joint venture "VТ Silk" and the joint venture " VТ Рохи абрешим ".

With a view of increase in cocoon production and increase of their quality in view of requirements of the world market it is necessary for State unitary enterprise "Pilla" to introduce the new technologies which are meeting the requirements of market economy in manufacture. In this connection studying technology of the advanced countries, such as Japan, China and Korea with a view of purchase of experience is necessary, and with the purpose of maintenance of development of this process to direct experts to these countries for studying experience.

For performance of process of revival and introduction of new technology, creation of complexes for silkworm rearing under “Pilla” enterprise it is necessary to use bank credits, and also budgetary funds

Chapter 6. Scientific maintenance, education of the staff and development the international economic relations

Priority directions of scientific maintenance of sericultural branches are the invention and introduction in manufacture of high-yielding mulberry hybrids and disease-resistant saplings and the breeds of silkworm having high raw silk quality

The research staff of the Sericulture experiment station have set the task for the period on 2005-2015, to introduce in manufacture of breeds of silkworm Т-1, Т-2, Х-1, Х-2, К-3, К-4, annually to increase manufacture seeds of high-yielding mulberry varieties such as "Сурхтут", "Илгор", "Топкросс-2", and "Топкросс-3" to increase the seed production from 35 up to 75 kg/year. For achievement of these tasks to allocate at the republican experimental station in Бабаджан area Gafurovskogo region 10 hа of irrigated land for the organization of a mother plantation field and preparation high-yielding mulberry varieties planting material.

In modern conditions of development of a society selection and placement of personnel in view of requirements of market economy is the determining moment of sericulture development. Heads of areas, chiefs of managements of agriculture, the sericultural and dryings of cocoons enterprises are obliged to involve capable entrants in Agrarian University of Tajikistan for preparation of experts for the sericulture branches with higher education. Now at this university a faculty of a professional training in sericulture functions. Also it is planned to direct experts for studying the best practices of sericulture branch to the advanced countries.

With the purpose of development of economic cooperation in sericultural branch, increases in manufacture of cocoons and perfection of economic mechanism “Pilla” company of its branches in Согдийской and Хатлонской areas, managements of areas of republican submission to provide with joint ventures " VТ-Silk", " VТ Рохи Абрешим " co-production on cocoon/silk processing and silkworm breeding.

With a view of processing the waste cocoons in republic to create a joint venture company. And also to provide creation of a small enterprise on processing cocoons at the enterprise on drying cocoons. With a view of carrying out of full diagnostics and definition of biological parameters and technology of the silkworm, its egg quality, cocoons and silk qualities, qualities of mulberry saplings and seeds, diagnostics of silkworm and mulberry diseases to create a special laboratory at the Republican sericulture experiment station. To allocate due to the republican budget necessary means for equipment of the special laboratory by the modern equipment.

Chapter 7. The conclusions

Heavy economic conditions of sericulture branch have negatively affected the further development. Besides in the last years distribution of the new pest of mulberry " Mulberry огневки " which ruthlessly eats leaves of the mulberry has sharply increased, in result growth and development of mulberry shoots stop and decreases for 40-50 % of leaves, in this connection has sharply decreased the forage reserve.

With a view of preservation of an existing forage reserve and maintenance with forages silkworm rearings it is necessary to make planting high-stem trees and to create new mulberry plantations.

Transition national economy of the republic on full independent economic functioning and market economy has put forward a lot of the most complicated problems among which the most important is the providing of silk processing enterprises of republic by enough cocoons.

For the solving of these problems should accept below-mentioned measures:

1. About sericulture development to create complex, economic, scientific and industrial concept on 2007-2015.
2. Widely to introduce in manufacture advanced sericultural experiences of Japan , China , India and other countries.
3. To develop provocative methods in selection of the silkworm for a choice of an initial material and creation of new breeds in view of accumulation of domestic and foreign experience in sericulture and to use in selection work methods of provocative selection.
4. To expand subjects of research on studying problems of sericultural economics and management, silkworm physiology, genetics and feeding on artificial diet.
5. For production of high quality silkworm eggs and cocoons and decrease the labor expenses to introduce foreign technologies on silkworm rearing in unison with the world standards.
6. With a view of stimulation the sericulture farmers and improvement of quality of cocoons, and also liquidation of cases of gathering of unripe cocoons to organize in the republic reeling tests of cocoon samples in order to adopt the method of cocoon evaluation, based on their reelability.
7. In order to improve the silk reeling efficiency (raw silk percentage and unbreakable filament length) and the raw silk quality it is necessary to evolve new highly productive mulberry varieties, silkworm breeds and hybrids.
8. In order to increase the interest of cocoon farmers for increase the cocoon production and quality, creation of conditions for transmission of sericulture on an industrial basis is expedient to increase the fresh cocoon purchasing price.
9. To create bigger silkworm rearing farms for cultivation of 50-100 egg boxes/stage.
10. For the solving of the above-stated problems it is necessary to direct sericulture heads and experts for studying the best practices in advanced countries as Japan , China , Korea , India and others.
 

 


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