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Azerbaijan national sericulture development plan

 

National plan for sericulture revival and development in Azerbaijan
By
Dr B. Abbasov
BACSA National coordinator for Azerbaijan ; e-mail: abbasovb@mail.ru
 
 
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS page
1. INTRODUCTION 3
2. THE NATIONAL PROGRAM OF SERICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN THE AZERBAIJAN REPUBLIC 4
2.1. Strategy of the program. 4
2.2. The purpose and problems (tasks) of the program. 4
2.3. Creation of regulatory-legal base of branch. 5
2.4. A choice of the most suitable areas for accommodation and developments of sericulture. 5
2.5. The basic directions and actions in sericulture development. 6
2.5.1. Strengthening the forage reserve. 7
2.5.2. The organization of silkworm egg production. 8
2.5.3. Silkworm rearing and fresh cocoon production. 9
2.5.4. The organization of preparation and primary processing of fresh cocoons. 10
2.5.5. Processing dry cocoons and manufacture of raw silk. 11
ANNEX 1. TABLES 12

1. INTRODUCTION

The sericulture in Azerbaijan has an ancient 1500 years history and famous traditions. According to historical sources, Azerbaijanians have started to be engaged with sericulture still in V th century A.D. Glorified all over the world, due to high quality, the Azerbaijan silk since XII century, began to export on the Great Silk Road to the countries of Asia and Europe. In second half of XX th centur y and it is especial ly , since 70th years , the sericulture development has received the greatest scope. During this period in republic annually produced 5-6 thousand ton of fresh cocoons, 350-400 ton of raw silk, developed tens millions square meters of silk fabrics of various assortment. With the silkworm rearing and manufacture of cocoons were engaged more than 150 thousand country families (approximately 750-800 thousand person). In the silk industry worked more than 14 thousand person, including in Sheki silk factory more than 7 thousand person. Azerbaijan in Soviet Union took 2nd place on manufacture of fresh cocoons and 1-st place on quality of cocoons and raw silk. Unfortunately, after purchase by republic of independence, because of incompetence of the forces which have come to authority, in the country the political and economic chaos which has put the strongest impact on many branches, including on sericulture was formed. Available in republic 2 parental egg stations , 7 hybrid egg production factories, cocoon drying centers in 30 districts , about 80 centers on preparation and primary processing of cocoons, Sheki silk factory , Ordubad silk reeling factory have suspended the industrial activity, hundred thousand people have remained without work. 1500 years sericulture in Azerbaijan appeared before threat of destruction.

 

However, secondary returning to authority of national leader G.Aliev has prevented alongside with many troubles and this danger. Under his personal assignment and the order in 2001 significant means have been allocated from the state budget and is restored industrial activity of Sheki Ipak J.S.C. (former Sheki silk factory ). Now for manufacture of raw silk with full capacity the enterprise needs annually 650-700 ton of dry cocoons that makes about 2000 ton of fresh cocoons. However, because of very low level of volumes of silkworm rearing and cultivation of fresh cocoons in republic, the enterprise for partial satisfaction of the capacity, for last 2-3 years has bought from abroad dry cocoons. At the same time by rational use of available potential opportunities, including strengthening of the forage reserve and silkworm egg production in republic it is possible to raise 2000 tone of fresh cocoons.

Thus of 50-60 thousand farmer's households (or approximately 200-250 thousand person) will be provided with seasonal work for silkworm rearing , and in this business teenagers, old pensioners and invalids can be engaged not only physically healthy people of mature age. The opportunity of improvement of well-being of socially least protected layer of the population hence will open. Alongside with it, 1000-1200 constant workplaces at again started enterprises on silkworm egg production , bases on preparation and primary processing of cocoons and in the industrial enterprise Sheki J.S.C. will in addition open, again planted mulberry plantations render positive influence on ecology of republic, the increase in manufacture of cocoons will promote acceleration socially - economic development of many areas and as a whole of republic, to agricultural population will be annually paid about 4 million US dollars for the cocoons brought up by them, will increase internal total p roduction and an export potential of the country due to manufacture of raw silk and the silk products corresponding to the international standards.

Proceeding from above-stated, under the initiative and direct support of a management of Sheki Ipak J.S.C. experts develop the national program of sericulture development in Azerbaijan Republic for the period 2006-2015. Realization of this program is a difficult and crucial business. In its realization, alongside with Sheki Ipak J.S.C. , all corresponding bodies and the organizations of republic, including the Ministry of economic development and an agriculture, the republican Center of agrarian sciences, Azerbaijan Scientific research institute of sericulture and others should take part. At the same time, support of this program on the part of the Government of Republic, could create favourable preconditions for its realization. Support of the Government of Republic could consist of below-mentioned privileges:

  • Delivery to sericulture farmers, mulberry sapling production nurseries and silkworm egg production factories of short-term and intermediate term credits on favourable terms;
  • Clearing of the customs of materials imported in the country and used for equipment of egg production factories, primary processing of cocoons and manufacture of raw silk;
  • Clearing of the customs exported from the country silkworm eggs and raw silk ;
  • Clearing of all kinds of the tax, for the period of 10 years, manufacturers of silkworm eggs , cocoons and raw silk ;
  • Granting to silkworm egg producers , cocoons and raw silk producers of fuel, electric energy and natural gas under reduced rates within 10 years.

Concerning continuation of cooperation of the countries of region the following in the near future is possible to tell: our country is ready to cooperate with any of the countries - members of the BACSA in sphere of silkworm egg production, mulberry seedlings and saplings production . We have completely restored activity of three hybrid silkworm egg factories and one parental egg station which capacity allows to prepare high-quality hybrid eggs in the volume, many times exceeding internal need of our country. Therefore, we can deliver high-quality hybrid eggs ( obtained by crossing of the Chinese and Japanese breed) in the countries of region, for example to Tadjikistan and Kirghizia, with that condition that the dry cocoons produced by them would these countries return to us. We also can deliver in any country a high-quality mulberry seedlings and saplings.

2. THE NATIONAL PROGRAM OF SERICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN THE AZERBAIJAN REPUBLIC

2.1. Strategy of the program.

Strategy of the program is conceived as a component of strategy of the economic policy, spent by the state in the country. It is known, that the state policy spent now for the further strengthening of the national economy is directed on acceleration of development of the branches which are not concerning to oil sector, on the basis of rational use of the big economic successes achieved in oil sector of the country. In view of it, the sericulture development can play the important role in development of two important branches of the country not concerning to oil sector - light industry and the agriculture. At the same time, as a result of sericulture development, the raw silk obtained from processing of strategically important raw material - cocoons of the silkworm, can be realized in the world markets due to what inflow of a foreign currency to the national economy will amplify.

2.2. The purpose and problems (tasks) of the program.

The basic purpose of the program consists, by the interconnected development of all sericulture parts - a forage reserve (mulberry plantations), a breeding affair (silkworm egg manufacture), cultivation, preparation and primary processing of fresh cocoons, manufacture of raw silk from dry cocoons - in achievement below-mentioned:

  • Increase in the export potential of the country by manufacture and deliveries to the world markets of competitive raw silk;
  • Strengthening of inflow of a foreign currency in the national economy;
  • Creation of the new processing enterprises in agrarian sector and the industry;
  • Promotion to acceleration of social and economic development in sericultural regions;
  • Maintenance of the population of the country with new workplaces (including 200-250 thousand seasonal and up to thousand constant workplaces);
  • Maintenance of effective industrial activity of Sheki Ipak J.S.C. on the basis of production of enough cocoon raw material in the republic.

For achievement of the above-stated purposes it is necessary to solve below-mentioned problems:

  • To strengthen the forage reserve of sericulture by improvement existing and planting of new mulberry plantations on the basis of agrotechnical actions;
  • To organize breeding works on manufacture high-quality P 2 , P 1 and F 1 (hybrid) silkworm eggs on a scientific basis;
  • To increase volume of production of qualitative industrial cocoons on the basis of progressive improvement of the silkworm rearing technology;
  • To organize preparation and qualitative primary processing of fresh cocoons at a high level;
  • To complete silk reeling manufacture by the modern process equipment;
  • To increase volume of manufacture and export of competitive raw silk on the basis of modern technologies.

2.3. Creation of regulatory-legal base of branch.

For correct and objective (on the lawful bases) settlements of carried out industrial - technological processes, labor and relations of production in all directions of sericulture, and also for a correct estimation of quality made products (for example: silkworm eggs, fresh cocoons, dry cocoons, etc.), presence of regulatory-legal base is required. This base will consist of various instructions, norms and specifications of the charge of materials and time for carried out works in various directions of sericulture, and most important of state standards on cocoons of the silkworm - fresh, air - dried and waste cocoons. These standards in sericulture of the republics are available. However, all of them are accepted during the Soviet authority, have become outdated and today do not correspond to requirements of free market economy. And new national standards in republic till now are not developed. Despite of it, there is a simple decision of this question. In 2004, Interstate council of the CIS countries on standardization, metrology and certifications has accepted at the session interstate standards on cocoons of the silkworm fresh, air - dried and waste (the report ? 25 from May, 25, 2004 ). For acceptance of these standards have voted 6 countries engaged in the sericulture, including Azerbaijan . For coming into force of these interstate standards in our republic, only corresponding order of the head of republican State agency on standardization metrology and patents is required.

Besides the Ministries of economic development and agriculture should present in the government the offer on preparation of the project and acceptance of a "Law about sericulture".

2.4. A choice of the most suitable areas for accommodation and developments of sericulture.

Definition of the most suitable areas of republic for sericulture accommodation and the further development is carried out on the basis of the following criteria: presence in area of a forage reserve (mulberry plantations) and their volume, a degree of technical suitability of regional base on primary processing fresh cocoons and the process equipment available in it, presence in the area suitable personal and farms for silkworm rearing and people showing interest to these.

 

On the basis of the analysis of the information on the above-stated criteria of the areas extracted by experts of Sheki Ipak J.S.C., for sericulture accommodation and developments at the given stage are chosen 14 below-mentioned areas of republic:
1. Агдашский 8. Кахский
2. Агджабединский 9. Габалинский
3. Агсуинский 10. Шекинский
4. Белоканский 11. Уджарский
5. Бардинский 12. Евлахский
6. Гёкчайский 13. Закатальский
7. Кюрдамирский 14. Зардабский

 

Mulberry plantations existing now in republic in volume of 2342 hectares are concentrated on territory of the chosen areas. The technical condition of bases of primary processing of cocoons and process equipments in the chosen areas also are more satisfactory, than in other areas. Besides in the chosen areas the quantity of suitable for silkworm rearing personal and farms and people, wishing to be engaged in this business are relatively higher, than in other areas. From available in the chosen areas 14 bases of primary processing of cocoons 9 are privatized, the others 5 are at a stage of privatization.

Manufacture of P 2 and P 1 silkworm eggs is solved to organize on Кахской parental egg station, manufacture hybrid (industrial) eggs - n Шекинском, Закатальском and Белоканском egg production factories. All of them are on balance and submission of the Ministry of Agriculture.

The management of Sheki Ipak J.S.C., for realization of the program of sericulture development, plans to organize work of all above-stated industrial structures on a contractual basis.

2.5. The basic directions and actions in sericulture development.

The sericulture as a branch of national economy, has complex structure and it is actually divided on two large sub-branches - the silk industry and silkworm rearing and cocoon production. In turn, everyone sub-branch will consist of the several industrial structures distinguished from each other by industrial - technological and organizational features. Experts name these structures the basic directions of sericulture. These industrial structures (the basic directions) of sericulture are the following:

In silkworm rearing and cocoon production:

  • A forage reserve (manufacture of forage for the silkworms);
  • Breeding business of the silkworm (manufacture of silkworm eggs of various category);
  • Silkworm rearing and manufacture of fresh cocoons;
  • Preparation and primary processing of fresh cocoons (manufacture of dry cocoons).

In the silk industry:

  • Processing dry cocoons (unwinding of cocoons and manufacture of raw silk);
  • Processing waste products of silk reeling;
  • Silk twisting;
  • Silk weaving;
  • Silk dyeing/printing etc.

It is necessary to note, that production obtained (mulberry leaves, silkworm eggs, fresh cocoons, dry cocoons etc.), in each of the above-stated industrial structures (directions), is used in the subsequent structure as raw material for obtaining of other production. Therefore, wrong planning of volume of manufacture or infringement of normal industrial activity for any reason in what or from these structures negatively influences industrial activity of the subsequent structures, and finally leads to reduction in volume and quality of made raw silk and silk allied products.

For realization of the program of development actions on the basic sericulture directions, which are developed on the basis of the executed calculations have relationships with each other on all agrotechnical, zootechnical, to technological and industrial parameters. At performance of calculations a number of specifications and instructions on the basic sericulture directions (on moriculture, silkworm egg production, silkworm rearing, primary processing fresh and processing of dry cocoons), and also existing scientific recommendations and literary data are used.

Below, in corresponding sequence, it is stated actions of development on the basic directions of sericulture.

2.5.1. Strengthening the forage reserve.

For strengthening the forage reserve of sericulture in republic increase of productivity of mulberry leaves of the existing and establishment of new mulberry plantations is necessary.

Increase of productivity of mulberry leaf of existing mulberry plantations. - on the statistical data, in 1989 in republic were presented more than 23 thousand hectares of mulberry plantations. However, in the next decade a significant part of these plantations, on a number of the objective and subjective reasons, it has been put out of action. Now in republic there are 2342 hectares of mulberry plantations. Their accommodation and volume on areas of republic is given in table 1. The greatest volumes of plantations are concentrated in Шекинском (593 ha), Уджарском (340 ha), Закатальском (327 ha), Бардинском (300 ha), Зардабском (270 ha), Белоканском (143 ha) and Кюрдамирском (107 ha) areas which in total make 88.8 % of plantations available in republic. It is necessary to note, that as a result of the insufficient agrotechnical care in the last 10-15 years, leaf productivity of mulberry plantations available in republic has considerably decreased. So, in opinion of experts, in 2007 expected average productivity of leaves from 1 hectare of available plantations, will make 1.5 tons (table 2). At the same time, on the basis of corresponding agrotechnical actions, the crop of mulberry leaves from each hectare can be increased in 5-6 times and to reach 7-8 tons. Therefore, since 2007, will be carried out a number of agrotechnical actions in available mulberry plantations. First of all, operation of pruning the old mulberry trees will be carried out. For this purpose each old tree it will be cut at the basis of the crown. Subsequently, the new shoots will be transformed into one-year branches, which will be formed as fist form. On younger trees operation of “thinning” will be carried out. For this purpose, on each young tree it will be cut off 30-50 % of available branches, and the dried up and underdeveloped branches first of all will be cut off. Each tree it will be cleared from young growths, appeared near the stem. Plowing inter-rows in plantations and irrigation them for 6-8 times for all vegetative period will be carried out. Alongside with these actions, for satisfaction of need of mulberry trees in mineral fertilizers, to mulberry plantations on republic ammonium sulphate, superphosphate and potassium chloride in the volume specified in table 4 will be annually brought.

As a result of these actions, gradual increase of mulberry leaf yield from each hectare of maintained mulberry plantations up to 8 tons (table 2) is expected.

Establishment of new mulberry plantations. - According to the prepared program, the annual volume of fresh cocoon production in Azerbaijan is planned to reach up to 2185 tons (table 6). For the purpose there will be a need of not less than 39595 boxes of silkworm eggs. (one box =29 g) (table 7) and to produce more than 40 thousand tons of mulberry leaves for what it is necessary to have 5652 hectares of maintained mulberry plantations. For finishing a forage reserve of republic up to the required volume, in view of existing plantations, it is necessary to plant 5652-2342 =3310 hectares of new mulberry plantations. Thus, planting of 3310 hectares of new plantations it will be completed in 2013 as new plantations are commissioned for 3 rd year from the establishment. Last two years (2014-2015) 1200 more hectares of new plantations will be incorporated. Thus, in 2015 the volume of the forage reserve in republic will reach 6852 hectares, that three times it is more in comparison with present volume. The total amount of again planted mulberry plantations is allocated between areas (table 1) in view of dynamics of development of fresh cocoon production in these areas (table 6).

The future productivity of mulberry leaves newly established plantations is influenced by a number of factors among which two are more important. These factors are the circuit of planting of a new plantation and quality of planting material.

There is a set of variants of the planting circuit. So, the distance between rows can change from 3.5 meters up to 4 meters, distance between plants in the row - from 0.5 meters up to 4 meters. By results of numerous researches it is convincingly shown, that with reduction of distance between plants the crop of the leaves from 1 hectare of plantations increases. Therefore, for establishment of new plantations is planned to use the planting circuit 5m ? 0.5m. The chosen circuit of planting has some advantages:

  1. Provides obtaining from each hectare of the greatest crop of leaves;
  2. The planted plants for 3 rd year act in operation;
  3. Allow to combine more rationally the moriculture with other kinds of plants.

As, at the chosen circuit of planting it is formed low-cut or the sectional plantation, trees in the ranks of do not shade other kinds of the plants planted between rows of plantations. At the same time, the stipulated distance between rows (5 m), allows to use widely agricultural machinery, including technical equipment of the Soviet manufacture at which majority, overall dimensions make 4.5 meters, at plowing and performance of other agricultural works. Alongside with it, cultivation of the second kind of plants in new mulberry plantations, will lead to reduction in the cost price and increase of economic efficiency of production of both kinds of plants.

In the future productivity of leaves of planted mulberry plantations, the important role will play also the quality of planting material. As a planting material, as a rule, are used seedlings and saplings of mulberry. For high quality maintenance of both kinds of planting material, they should be prepared from highly productive mulberry varieties and meet the technical requirements of state standard.

Required quantity of planting material is at the rate of 4000 saplings on 1 hectare, according to the chosen circuit of planting, and the total amounts necessary for establishment of new mulberry plantations in the planned volume, are submitted in table 3. Apparently from the data of this table, for establishment of new plantations annually it is required 1.34 – 2.40 million saplings.

Manufacture of planting material is planned to be organized on Фахралинской base on moriculture, which used to be under the Scientific research institute of sericulture, and now is in submission of Гянджинского regional center of agrarian sciences. This base has 80 hectares of the ground area from which 39 hectares are under mulberry plantations. In these plantations about 300 mulberry varieties and forms created worldwide, including in Azerbaijan are collected. Besides here there is seed mother plantation on 3 hectares.

2.5.2. The organization of silkworm egg production.

In sericulture, for obtaining of high crops of cocoons, the important role is played with the correct organization of breeding works on manufacture of silkworm eggs. As a rule, in sericulture are made eggs in 3 various categories – P 2 , P 1 and F 1 (hybrid). These eggs differ to destination. The P 2 and P 1 eggs are prepared from pure breeds and serve for duplication of these breeds on stages of breeding work. Hybrid egg it turns out from hybridization of two pure breeds (female moths of one breed are crossed to male moths of other breed) and intends for manufacture of fresh industrial cocoons. The P 2 and P 1 eggs are produced at the parental egg stations, and the hybrid eggs - on hybrid egg production factories.

Volume of manufacture P 2 , P 1 and F 1(hybrid) eggs, required for realization of the program of sericulture development on years it is designed in view of existing fodder resources and dynamics of their development, i.e. the forecast of mulberry leaf yield. (table 5).

Manufacture P 2 and P 1 eggs is solved to organize on Кахской parental egg station, and hybrid eggs - on Шекинском, Закатальском and Белоканском hybrid silkworm egg factories.

It is necessary to note, that for even considerable increase of productivity of cocoons, the significant role is played with use at egg production more highly productive breeds and hybrids of the silkworm. Taking into account it, the Sheki Ipak J.S.C. management, 3 years ago has delivered in republic eggs of one Japanese and one Chinese type breeds and has organized their multiplication. In 2005 enough P 2 , P 1 and F 1 (hybrid) eggs were prepared and these breeds will be used at realization of the concept of sericulture development prepared. At the same time, understanding the importance of creation of new, more productive breeds and hybrids in the republic for the further sericulture development, the management of Sheki Ipak J.S.C. was adjusted with connection with the corresponding scientific organizations, in particular with Azerbaijan Scientifically - Research Institute of Sericulture and having concluded the contract, has ordered creation of new breeds and the hybrids of silkworm answering to modern requirements of the world standards.

All complex it is industrial - technological actions and the operations which are carried out for manufacture P 2 and P 1 eggs and are in details stated in the “Basic methodical positions of breeding work with the silkworm ", and for manufacture hybrid eggs - in the instruction " Key rules of preparation industrial silkworm eggs on egg production factories ". For maintenance of manufacture qualitative eggs of all categories, experts of a sericulture department at Sheki Ipak J.S.C. will be carried out the strict control over performance of requirements of the specified instructions by workers Кахской parental egg station, and also Шекинского, Закатальского and Белоканского hybrid egg hybrid egg production factories up to the mark. Alongside with it, in the specified enterprises will be carried out number organizational - economic actions.

With the purpose of a choice of elite facilities for parental egg station and breeding facilities for hybrid egg factories, are examined the work force available and the farms located in a zone of their activity and are determined most suitable of them for carrying out elite and breeding silkworm rearings. In the chosen elite and breeding facilities it will not be allowed to conduct silkworm rearing of industrial purpose. Delivery the brought up on elite and breeding facilities of fresh cocoons in places of acceptance them at the parental egg station and hybrid egg factories only in the morning (till 10.00 A.M.) and only in firm container (baskets, wooden or plywood boxes with lateral apertures for aeration, etc.), that will allow to prevent deterioration of fresh cocoons.

For carrying out mother moth examination for pebrine are purchased 30 phase- contrast microscopes of foreign mark which are distributed between the parental egg station and three hybrid egg factories. Use of these microscopes at the factory and state microanalysis will allow to determine more precisely infected with illnesses egg batches, in due time to reject them and to exempt sold eggs from diseases.

2.5.3. Silkworm rearing and fresh cocoon production.

One of the primary goals of the program of sericulture development is the increase of fresh cocoon production. A number of other tasks of the program, namely strengthening and expansion of the forage reserve, and also silkworm eggs of various categories production, are directed on the successful solving of this primary goal.

According to plans of the program, in republic (table 6) is planned to reach manufacture of fresh cocoons from 161 tons in 2006 with 2185 tons in 2015. Distribution of total amount of cocoons made in republic on years and areas (table 6), are designed in view of corresponding conditions (the current condition and the subsequent development of the forage reserve, amount of facilities, suitable for carrying out silkworm rearing, etc.) in each area.

For increase in manufacture of fresh cocoons in republic, actions both extensive, and intensive type will be carried out. For extensive development of manufacture of fresh cocoons, the increase in silkworm rearing volumes, organized on republic is planned, according to rates of development of the forage reserve. So, in view of an existing condition of the forage reserve in 2006 the volume of industrial silkworm rearings will make 3000 boxes, breeding rearings - 200 boxes. These volumes will be gradually increased on years and in 2015 the volume of industrial rearings will reach 38090 boxes, and breeding rearings - 1505 boxes (table 7).

For increase in manufacture of cocoons actions of intensive development will be carried out also. It's well-known, that productivity of cocoons from 1 box of eggs depends on two intensive factors - a level of silkworm rearing techniques and from the level of hereditary efficiency of breeds and the hybrids used on the rearings. Taking into account it, the management of Sheki Ipak J.S.C. as it has already been marked, has delivered in republic one Japanese and one Chinese breed possessing high efficiency and has organized their breeding multiplication. Thus, one of planned intensive actions has been carried out beforehand. Thus it is planned, in 4-5 years, to replace these breeds and their hybrids with new, more productive breeds and the hybrids adequate to modern requirements of the world standards, created by local selectors. For realization of other intensive action - correct silkworm rearing techniques will be transmitted by experts and regional representatives of the sericulture department of Sheki Ipak, prior to the beginning and in the course of rearing, explanatory conversations with agricultural population on places, the organization of seminars for farmers - sericulturists, the publication in local regional newspapers of articles about rules of silkworm rearing is planned.

Taking into account a considerable role of the correct silkworm incubation in obtaining of high crops of cocoons, it is planned to organize in 2007 from above 30 incubatory chambers. With this purpose, in cocoon producing areas will be found and suitable premises in which incubatory chambers will be organized, rented and provided with all necessary materials and stock (thermometers, humidity-meters, 2 - 3 floor rearing shelves, technical balance, covering paper, fuel, etc.) for correct carrying out of silkworm egg incubation.

As a result of carrying out of planned actions, the increase in average productivity of cocoons from 1 box of eggs (29 g) on industrial rearings from the planned 50 kg in 2007 up to 55 kg in 2014, on breeding rearings - accordingly from 55 kg up to 60 kg (table 7) is expected. Alongside with it, improvement of quality (high-quality structure) made fresh cocoons is expected also. So, if in 2006 in total amount of a crop of the fresh cocoons accepted to primary processing, high-quality cocoons will make 87 %, and the spoilage/unreelable cocoons - 13 %, in 2015 these parameters will make accordingly 93 % and 7 % (table 8). Thus, the amount of high-quality cocoons in the general crop of fresh cocoons will be raised for 6 absolute percent that is high enough result.

2.5.4. The organization of preparation and primary processing of fresh cocoons.

Quality of cocoons intended for production of raw silk, substantially depends on the correct organization of preparation and primary processing of fresh cocoons.

Preparation of cocoons is meant as purchase of fresh cocoons from the farmers - business executives, quantitative and quality standard of parties of cocoons (definition of percent and physical weight of high-quality and low-grade cocoons in parties), registration of the documentation on payment of the accepted parties of cocoons, time storage of the accepted fresh cocoons before primary processing.

Primary processing of cocoons mean their stifling and the subsequent drying. For cocoon stifling and drying exists set of ways. However, among them, the most suitable for practical use is the fresh cocoon stifling by hot air and their subsequent shadow drying. At such primary processing, natural and technological properties of cocoons are kept better. Now many regional bases are equipped with simplex devices and shadow dryers which allow carrying out primary processing of fresh cocoons by the mentioned above way.

Considering above-stated, is solved to organize preparation and primary processing of the fresh cocoons made in chosen areas, on bases of the same areas. For carrying out of preparation and primary processing of cocoons it is up to the mark planned a number of actions.

For successful carrying out of preparation of fresh cocoons, in territory of base the procuring item consisting from waiting - room, balance, storehouses for high-quality and defective cocoons, laboratories will be organized. The waiting - room intends for preparation of parties of cocoons for delivery to the inspector. Balance, the area of 20-30 m 2 intends for definition of weight of an accepted party of cocoons, conformity of cocoons in a party to requirements of state standard and sampling for the laboratory analysis. The storehouse of fresh cocoons will serve for temporary storage of them within 1-2 days before primary processing. For protection of stored fresh cocoons against a wind, a rain and solar beams, the canopy here will be established. Taking into account absence in republic of national state standard on fresh cocoons of the silkworm, the estimation of accepted parties of cocoons will be carried out on the basis of specifications on the interstate standard (31257-2004).

For a correct and objective estimation of parties of cocoons, they will be accepted only in the afternoon. Parties of cocoons, they are sometimes artificially humidified and containing unripe cocoons, therefore such a parties will be accepted only after enough drying in a shadow and maturing of cocoons. Generally speaking, unripe cocoons are one of principal causes of deterioration of cocoons at primary processing. Therefore, for elimination of this lack and prevention of cocoon batches deterioration, experts of Sheki Ipak J.S.C. during the period of cocoon spinning/mounting will visit the sericulture farmers to determine the degree of maturity of cocoons and day of their harvesting from the mountages.

Other principal cause, worsening quality of cocoons is delivery of fresh cocoons to places of acceptance in soft container (in bags, etc.). Therefore, corresponding measures for delivery of fresh cocoons to places of acceptance only in firm container (in baskets, wooden, plywood or cardboard boxes/cages with lateral apertures for aeration, etc.) will be adopted.

For qualitative primary processing of fresh cocoons corresponding measures also will be accepted.

On each base, prior to the beginning of silkworm rearing season, simplex devices and shadow dryers will be checked up, in required cases are repaired and resulted in a condition the worker of readiness. For maintenance of trouble-free work of simplex devices during primary processing of cocoons, the bases will be supplied with all necessary materials and fuel. At primary processing of cocoons correct observance of a mode of stifling and duly performance of all required technological operations, for qualitative drying of cocoons will be provided during 1. 5-2.0 months.

The complex of planned actions will give a number of positive results. For example, improvement, to be exact reduction such important economically parameter, as factor of an output of dry cocoons from fresh is expected. This parameter making 2.70 in 2006, will be gradually reduced on years and in 2014, 2.50 (table 8) will be achieved. And it means that the cost price of dry cocoons will considerably decrease. Alongside with it, improvement of quality (high-quality structure) dry cocoons is expected also. So if in 2006 high-quality cocoons make 87 % of total amount of dry cocoons gradually improving on years, will reach 93 % in 2015. It in turn, will create good preconditions for manufacture of qualitative raw silk.

2.5.5. Processing dry cocoons and manufacture of raw silk.

One of the basic purposes of sericulture development in republic is the production of enough local cocoons for maintenance of trouble-free work of the silk reeling manufactures of Sheki Ipak J.S.C. with full capacity. At the same time, for trouble-free work of this enterprise with full capacity, alongside with enough cocoons, it is required also the corresponding technical and technological conditions providing economically effective manufacture. Therefore, the management of Sheki Ipak J.S.C., with the purpose of creation of required conditions, has carried out a number of actions.

Industrial premises of silk reeling units, units on processing waste products and boiler-house are completely repaired. In the units are carried out repair – adjustment works of all technical constructions and the process equipment, including multiends silk reeling machines, the ventilating system is established. The factory is provided by natural gas. Alongside with it, for improvement of working conditions of workers, are built a number of household objects (dining room, locker room, bath, toilet, etc.), adequate to modern sanitary-and-hygienic norms.

Alongside with the carried out actions, the management of joint-stock company, for increase in capacity of the enterprise, plans purchase of two foreign automatic silk reeling lines.

Thus, in view of purchase of two foreign fully automatic silk reeling lines, annual production of raw silk at the enterprise will make 216.9 tons. The volume of cocoons required on years for manufacture of the specified quantity of raw silk is submitted in table 9. Apparently from the data of this table, in 2013 it will be possible to provide needs of silk reeling manufacture completely for the account of local cocoon production. And till that time, for full maintenance of manufacture with raw material, it is necessary annually to deliver from abroad dry cocoons in the volume specified in table 9. At the same time, in 2014-2015, owing to significant increases of dry cocoons production in republic, it will be possible to exceed the planned level (216.9 t) manufactures of raw silk in 2014 on 46 ton, in 2015 on 80 ton. Therefore, in 2013 it will be already necessary to buy additional silk reeling machines.

It is necessary to note, that as a result of realization of all actions stipulated in the program of sericulture development in republic, alongside with increase in volumes of fresh and dry cocoons production, there will be also an improvement of some their quality indicators, including silk shell percentage and the raw silk percentage. Due to this, the charge of dry cocoons for obtaining of 1 kg raw silk (table 9) will be reduced annually. It will lead to annual reduction in volume of the dry cocoons spent for obtaining 216.9 tone of raw silk. For example, in 2006 for production of 216.9 tone of raw silk, 776.5 tons of dry cocoons whereas in 2012, on production of the same amount of raw silk only 615.2 tons of dry cocoons will be spent, that in comparison with 2006 it is less on 161.3 tons or on 21 %. Reduction of the charge of dry cocoons will lead to reduction in the cost price of raw silk produced and increase of economic efficiency of manufacture.

Finally, due to significant improvement of cocoon quality and the technological level of production, it will be possible to develop competitive raw silk of a class 2?, 3?, 4?, and also high-quality silk production and to leave on the world markets.
 

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